The state of Sabah is the second largest state in Malaysia after Sarawak. In the south, Sabah also shares its borders with East Kalimantan of Indonesia, while the other cardinal directions face the South China Sea. The capital of the state of Sabah is Kota Kinabalu, formerly known as Jesselton during British rule. It is located in the typhoon-prone region of the Philippines.
Sabah's geographical structure is a mix of mountainous regions, beaches, and tropical rainforests. The western side is mountainous, primarily with three of Malaysia's highest mountains being a part of it. The Crocker Range is the most famous of it, with mountains up to 4,000m in height. Mount Kinabalu, at 4,095m, is the highest mountain in Malaysia and the fourth highest in Asia. The tropical rainforests of Sabah include the Kinabalu National Park, which was declared as a World Heritage Site in 2000 due to its ecological diversity.
Close by to Mount Kinabalu is Mount Tambuyukon, which is 2,579m in height, is the third highest peak in the country. Next to the Crocker Range is the Trus Madi Range, which houses Mount Trus Made, the second highest peak in Malaysia. These mountain ranges extend themselves to the central part of Sabah. The lower laying areas of the mountain ranges have rivers and dense rainforests.
Petite mountain ranges cover Sabah's central and eastern portion, where the Kinabatangan River originates and finally meets the Sulu sea. The forest surrounding the river is the most extensive forest-covered floodplain in Malaysia. Most urban towns are located along the coastal areas, while small villages and towns form the interiors. Sabah has many protected wildlife areas other than Kinabalu, like Maliau Basin, Danum Valley, Tabin, and Sepilok.
Sabah is divided into five administrative divisions, namely: West Coast Division, Interior Division, Kudat Division, Sandakan Division, Tawau Division and Labuan Division.